Adit - An almost horizontal passage from the
surface by which a mine is entered and dewatered, or a blind horizontal
opening into a mountain, with only one entrance.
Angle of dip - The angle at which strata or
mineral deposits are inclined in relation to the horizontal plane.
Azimuth - A term used for surveying that references
the angle measured clockwise from any meridian (the established
line of reference). The bearing is used to designate direction.
The bearing of a line is the acute horizontal angle between the
meridian and the line.
Back - The roof or ceiling of an underground
Backfill - Mine waste or rock used to support
the roof after ore removal.
Borehole - Any long or deep drill-hole, usually
associated with a diamond drill.
Core sample - A cylindric rock sample generally
1-5" in diameter drilled out of an area. These samples are
then examined geologically and if warranted sent for chemical
Capital stock - The total ownership of a limited
liability company divided among a specified number of shares.
Cash flow - A measure of the fiscal strength
of a business. The net of the incoming and outgoing of cash during
an accounting period. Does not account for depreciation or write-offs
which do not involve an actual cash outlay.
Capitalization - A term used to describe the
value financial markets place on a company. Determined by multiplying
the number of outstanding shares of a company by the current stock
Claim - A portion of land held either by a prospector
or a mining company under federal or provincial Canadian law.
The common size is about 400m square, containing about 16 ha.
Cut and fill - a type of mining consisting of
blasting the ore by successive horizontal lift and extracting
from the excavation all the ore as the breaking occurs. The mucking
of the ore is done with a scraper or loader towards a chute, generally
developed in the backfill. The void then created is filled with
material that can differ from mine to mine. The waste rock put
in place serves as a floor while supporting the walls.
Deposit - A mineral deposit or ore deposit is
used to designate a natural occurrence of a useful mineral, or
an ore, in sufficient extent and degree of concentration to invite
Diamond - The hardest mineral known, composed
of pure carbon; low-quality diamonds are used to make bits for
diamond drilling in rock.
Diamond drill - A type of rock drill in which
the cutting is done by abrasion rather than percussion, by rotating
a bit. The cutting bit is set with diamonds and is attached to
the end of long hollow rods through which water is pumped to the
cutting face. The drill cuts a core of rock that is recovered
in long cylindrical sections, usually two centimeters or more
Dip - The angle that a vein, structure or rock
bed is inclined from the horizontal as measured at right angles
to the strike.
Drawpoint - An underground opening at the bottom
of an excavation in a mine through which broken ore is extracted.
Drill - A machine utilizing rotation, and percussion
(hammering), or a combination of both to make holes. Usually,
if the hole is over 0.4m in diameter, the machine is called a
Drilling - The use of such a machine (drill)
to create holes for exploration or for loading explosives.
Epithermal deposit - A mineral deposit consisting
of veins and replacement bodies that usually occurs in volcanic
or sedimentary rocks, containing precious metals, and sometimes
although rarely, base metals. Epithermal mineral deposits are
typically formed within about 1 km of the Earth's surface in a
temperature range of between 50 to 200 degrees C, usually forming
characteristic vein like structures.
Exploration - The search for mineral deposits
and the work done to prove or establish the grade and size of
a mineral deposit. Alternatively: Prospecting and subsequent evaluation.
Extraction - The process of mining and removal
of diamonds, metals, or ore from a mine.
Fault – An area between two portions of
the earth's surface that have moved relative to each other due
to tectonic forces. A fault is a failure surface and is evidence
of severe earth stresses.
Geologist - Someone who studies the constitution,
structure, and history of the earth's crust, conducting research
into the formation and dissolution of rock layers, analyzing fossil
and mineral content of layers, and endeavoring to fix historical
sequence of development by relating characteristics to known geological
influences (historical geology).
Inferred resources - Inferred resources are
based on an assumed continuity beyond measured and/or indicated
resources, for which there is geological evidence. Inferred resources
may or may not be supported by samples or measurements.
Indicated resources - Resources from which the
quantity and grade and/or quality are calculated from information
similar to that used for measured resources, but the sites for
sampling, and measurement are farther apart and possibly less
all encompassing then measured resource standards. The degree
of assurance, although lower than that for measured resources,
is high enough to assume continuity between points of observation.
Long hole - Underground boreholes exceeding
at lest 10 ft (3.05 m) using more then one length of drill steel
or rods joined together to drill to the desired depth.
Mud - A drilling fluid containing essentially
clay and water, to lubricate drill rods and casings during drilling.
Metric tonne - Equals 1.102 standard short ton
Room and pillar - A type of mining that consists
of a variety of empty excavations where only part of the ore is
extracted, the rest being left in the form of pillars to support
the back. These pillars may be abandoned definitely or be recuperated
later. The dimension of the stopes and pillars depend on the stability
of the roof of the underground opening and the ore, the thickness
of the deposit and the ground pressures. This type of mining is
used for the mining of flat and narrow deposits.
Shaft - A primary vertical or non-vertical opening
through mine strata used for ventilation or drainage and/or for
hoisting of personnel or materials; connects the surface to the
Shaft mine - An underground mine where the main
entry or access is by means of a vertical shaft.
Shrinkage stope - A mining method that consists
in leaving in the room, for the duration of the mining, a significant
part (around 60%) of the broken ore. After each blast, the ore
surplus corresponding to the swelling (around 40%) is extracted
in a way to leave free space in between the ore in place and the
broken ore allowing circulation of the workers. The broken ore,
kept in the room serves as a floor and contributes to support
the walls. The room is emptied when the bloc is entirely blasted.
Stope - An excavation in a mine from which ore
is being or has been extracted.
Stratified - A formation having banded layers,
Valuation - The act or process of valuing or
of estimating the value or worth; also called appraisal.
Workings - The entire system of openings in
a mine for the purpose of operation.